What is asthma and how can it be controlled?

Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by coughing, shortness of breath coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing. Risk factors include genetics, obesity, a predisposition to allergic reactions, high exposure to airborne irritants (squirting), and exposure to airborne irritants (pet dander, house dust, molds, chemicals and air pollution), exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and childhood, frequent respiratory tract infections early in life, indoor and outdoor air quality and low birth weight.

It is important to adopt a healthy lifestyle, avoid triggers and work closely with a health care professional to control asthma. Treatments include control medications, rescue medications and add-on medications.

Control medications are anti-inflammatory medications that reduce airway inflammation and prevent asthma attacks. They should be taken regularly, even if there are no symptoms. Control medications include inhaled corticosteroids (e.g. fluticasone, budesonide), long-acting inhaled beta-2-agonists (e.g. formoterol, salmeterol), antileukotrienes (e.g., montelukast, zafirlukast), mast cell stabilizers (e.g., sodium cromoglycate) and immunomodulators (e.g., omalizumab, mepolizumab).

Rescue medications are bronchodilators that dilate the airways and relieve the symptoms of an asthma attack. They should be used as needed, when symptoms occur or before physical activity. Rescue medications include short-acting inhaled beta-2-agonists (e.g. salbutamol, terbutaline) and anticholinergics (e.g. ipratropium).

Air purifiers can be effective in controlling asthma, provided they are able to filter out fine and ultrafine particles that are associated with airway inflammation. These particles include pollen, dust mites, molds, animal dander, chemicals and tobacco smoke. Air purifiers that use a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter are most recommended for removing these particles from the air. Air cleaners that use an activated carbon filter can also help reduce gases and odors that can irritate the lungs.

It is important to choose an air purifier that is appropriate for the size of the room and place it in a location where it can capture and distribute air effectively. The filter should also be changed or cleaned regularly according to the manufacturer's instructions. Air purifiers should not be used as a substitute for other preventive measures, such as avoiding asthma triggers, airing out the house, cleaning bedding and carpets, and not smoking indoors.


Asthma: diagnosis, treatments and management (lungandbec.ca)

Asthma: Asthma treatments (medication, homeopathy) (passeportsante.net)

Asthma Drug Therapy - Lung Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition (merckmanuals.com)